Canada is a country in North America. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and a former colony of the British Empire.
Canada was settled very briefly by Viking settlers from Greenland around 1000 AD. This was the first contact between Native Americans (whom the Vikings referred to as Skraelings) and Europeans. In 1583, the Englishman Sir Humphrey Gilbert founded Newfoundland and the area was settled in 1610. A large area of land in central Canada, known today as Quebec, was part of New France until the signing of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.
Many British colonists fled to Canada following the American Revolution, which established the independence of the thirteen colonies south of Newfoundland as the United-States of America. The USA made a brief attempt at invading Canada in 1812, however this was quickly repelled by the British forces. Canada shared a land border with the US and the Russian Empire until 1867, when the US purchased Alaska from Russia, thus becoming the only country to currently share a land border with Canada.
Being a British territory, Canada was immediately involved in the First World War and played a major part in many large engagements such as the battle of Vimy Ridge. Canada suffered approximately 60,000 casualties during the war. It was also a key player in the Second World War, participating in many campaigns such as the invasion of Italy and the D-day landings in Normandy.
Although the Monarch of England is still the Head of State in Canada, it is a fully independent nation.